Second Edition of “Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition” by Dr. Guoyao Wu Now Available

Biochemistry and nutrition of amino acids (AAs) is an interesting, dynamic, and challenging subject in biological sciences.  It spans an immense range from chemistry, metabolism, and physiology to reproduction, immunology, pathology, and cell biology. Based on the first edition of “Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition” in 2013, Dr. Guoyao Wu, University Distinguished Professor, published the second edition of this book with CRC Press in 2022. All chapters have been substantially revised, expanded, and updated to reflect significant advances in recent years.

Specific additions to the new edition include: (1) the nutrition and metabolism of AAs and proteins in humans (e.g., infants, young and elderly adults, as well as patients with diabetes and cancers), including the roles of animal- and plant-sourced proteins, vegetarian diets, and dietary supplementation with AAs, protein, and creatine in their growth, health (e.g., sarcopenia, immunity, and longevity), sport nutrition, and exercise performance; (2) the nutrition and metabolism of AAs and proteins in aquatic (e.g., fish and shrimp) and companion (e.g., zoo and domestic pet) animals; (3) recent developments in functional AAs as applied to the health and productivity of humans and other animals; (4) dietary requirements of humans and other animals for biosynthesizable (traditionally “nutritionally nonessential”) AAs, and of companion animals (e.g., cats and dogs) for all proteinogenic AAs and taurine; (5) new sources of dietary proteins in the nutrition of humans (e.g., insect proteins and algae) and farm animals (e.g., fishmeal alternatives); (6) the formulation of cost-effective and environmentally sustainable low-protein diets for livestock, poultry, fish, and shrimp; (7) proteinogenic (e.g., L-selenocysteine and L-pyrrolysine) and non-proteinogenic (e.g., L-homoarginine, L-phosphoarginine, and gizzerosine) AAs; (8) AA metabolism via non-canonical pathways, such as syntheses of polyamines and glycine in animals; (9) the methods and concerns over the current evaluation of dietary protein quality using the PDCAAS (protein digestibility corrected AA score) and DIAAS (the digestible indispensable AA score) systems; (10) the roles of AAs in the prevention and treatment of metabolic (e.g., hypertension, liver dysfunction, obesity, and diabetes) and infectious (e.g., bacterial and viral) diseases, as well as intestinal and reproductive disorders; (11) the safety of dietary AA and protein intakes in humans and other animals; and (12) heated debate over potential contributions of high protein intake to the development of diseases in humans, such as cardiovascular disorders, bone integrity, type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus, and cancers.

This book includes the following important technical and conceptual advances in the field of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition: (1) the analysis of AAs by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry; (2) isotopic measurements of the synthesis and degradation of proteins and AAs in cells, tissues, and the whole body; (3) the inter-organ metabolism of AAs involving the liver, skeletal muscle, small intestine, kidneys, and brain; (4) AAs in cell signaling and the regulation of gene expression; (5) mechanisms for lysosomal proteolysis via autophagy, as well as nonlysosomal proteolysis by ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomes; (6) the molecular and cellular regulation of intracellular protein turnover and AA metabolism; (7) measurements of true ileal digestibilities of AAs in humans and other animals; (8) the molecular cloning of cell-specific transporters for AAs and small peptides; (9) the development of the ideal protein concept and its revision to optimum ratios of all proteinogenic AAs; (10) dietary requirements of humans and other animals for AASAs (AAs that are synthesizable de novo in animal cells); (11) the new nutritional concept of functional AAs in humans and other animals; and (12) the safety and NOAELs (no observed adverse effect levels) for supplemental AAs.

The second edition of “Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition” consists of 13 chapters. The book begins with the discoveries and basic chemical concepts of AAs, peptides, and proteins.  It then advances to protein digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and the absorption of small peptides and individual free AAs in the small intestine.  This chapter is followed by a detailed coverage of cell- and tissue-specific synthesis and catabolism of AAs, as well as related nitrogenous substances (including nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, creatine, taurine, urea, and uric acid) and hydrogen sulfide in humans and other animals. After the use of isotopes in studying AA metabolism is introduced in Chapter 7, the book continues with intracellular protein turnover, short-term (e.g., via protein phosphorylation) and long-term (e.g., via gene expression, epigenetic modifications, and protein synthesis) regulation of AA metabolism, physiological functions of AAs, and inborn errors of AA metabolism.  Finally, the text ends with dietary requirements of AAs/protein by humans and other animals, including the evaluation of dietary protein quality, the roles and safety of dietary AA/protein intake in human physical performance and health, as well as myths and misconceptions over and evidence-based AA/protein nutrition.

While the classical concepts and principles of AA biochemistry and nutrition are emphasized throughout the book, every effort has been made to include the most recent progress in this ever-expanding field, so that readers in various biological disciplines can integrate AA biochemistry with nutrition, health, and disease in mammals, birds, and other animal species. This book is a useful text/reference book for graduate students, senior undergraduates, and researchers in both agriculture and biomedicine, and for the public.

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